Verbal Strat
Comments 26

How to increase your accuracy on RC – 3

In the previous two posts, RC-1 and RC-2, we discussed 3 RCs from CAT 2017 Slot – 2 and executed a specific strategy — paragraph to questions — to solve CAT RCs that will increase your accuracy.

In this final post of this series, we will solve the two remaining passages and fine-tune the methods discussed so far.


What if there is only one paragraph?

The GMAT has over the years consistently had two long and two short passages — one para passages — in its Verbal Reasoning section.

The single paragraph RC has never appeared in the Verbal Ability section of the CAT — barring the sole passage in last year’s second slot. Even Slot 1 did not have one. Suffice to say that it seems to be by accident rather than by design.

Typewriters are the epitome of a technology that has been comprehensively rendered obsolete by the digital age. The ink comes off the ribbon, they weigh a ton, and second thoughts are a disaster. But they are also personal, portable and, above all, private. Type a document and lock it away and more or less the only way anyone else can get it is if you give it to them. That is why the Russians have decided to go back to typewriters in some government offices, and why in the US, some departments have never abandoned them. Yet it is not just their resistance to algorithms and secret surveillance that keeps typewriter production lines – well one, at least – in business (the last British one closed a year ago). Nor is it only the nostalgic appeal of the metal body and the stout well-defined keys that make them popular on eBay. A typewriter demands something particular: attentiveness. By the time the paper is loaded, the ribbon tightened, the carriage returned, the spacing and the margins set, there’s a big premium on hitting the right key. That means sorting out ideas, pulling together a kind of order and organising details before actually striking off. There can be no thinking on-screen with a typewriter. Nor are there any easy distractions. No online shopping. No urgent emails. No Twitter. No need even for electricity – perfect for writing in a remote hideaway. The thinking process is accompanied by the encouraging clang of keys, and the ratchet of the carriage return. Ping!

Question 19

Which one of the following best describes what the passage is trying to do?

A) It describes why people continue to use typewriters even in the digital age.

B) It argues that typewriters will continue to be used even though they are an obsolete technology.
C) It highlights the personal benefits of using typewriters.

D) It shows that computers offer fewer options than typewriters.

Question 20

According to the passage, some governments still use typewriters because:

A) they do not want to abandon old technologies that may be useful in the future.

B) they want to ensure that typewriter production lines remain in business.
C) they like the nostalgic appeal of a typewriter.

D) they can control who reads the document.

Question 21

The writer praises typewriters for all the following reasons EXCEPT

A) Unlike computers, they can only be used for typing.

B) You cannot revise what you have typed on a typewriter.
C) Typewriters are noisier than computers.
D) Typewriters are messier to use than computers. 

Now that there is only one paragraph to read, we know there is only one way to go — from the passage to the questions.

Once you go to the questions, it becomes important, as discussed in the previous post, to look at the sequence in which you have to attempt the questions. It is always advisable to finish off the detail questions first and then proceed to the summary questions.

The first question is a summary question and hence needs to be left for later.

Question 20 is a detail question that is very direct and I don’t need to solve it for you to arrive at the answer as option D.

Did you notice the paraphrasing? The passage says the only way anyone can get a typewritten document is if you hand it over, which is why some governments have reverted to them.

This has been paraphrased to — they can control who reads the document.

Very often test-takers are subconsciously looking for the same wording to be used in the options, as in the passage.

This expectation tends to have two negative fallouts.

Firstly, they fall for trap options that use the phrasing from the passage but tweak the logic. Secondly, they tend to, at first glance, quickly reject the correct option since it uses different words. So ensure that you are reading for logic and not for phrasing.

Question 21 takes paraphrasing to a new level and hence can become tricky. But any tricky question can become easy if you go by rejection.

  • The author clearly says that when typing there are no distractions and lists them out. This has been paraphrased to — they can’t be used for anything other than typing. So this can be rejected since it is an EXCEPT question.
  • Option B has been clearly stated — since you can’t revise you have to be attentive to what you type. So this can be rejected since it is an EXCEPT question.
  • Option C is tricky. Does the author praise the noisiness of typewriters? The word/phrase that is used is “encouraging clang”, clang means noise and the author finds the noise encouraging. The author lists this as one of the things to like about typewriters. So this can be rejected since it is an EXCEPT question.
  • The author does not mention the messiness of typewriters as one of the reasons for liking it. So this has to be your answer.

Now we can go to the summary question, which is a primary purpose question.

  • Option A cannot be rejected since the passage talks about how some governments are using it for security reasons and then lists all the other positive things about typewriters
  • Option B is incorrect since the author makes no claim that typewriters will continue to be used
  • Option C is close but it talks only about the personal benefits and not the security benefits
  • Option D is incorrect since the passage is not about computers versus typewriters

So by rejection, you are again left with the right option, in this case, A.

If you read this passage in under 3 minutes and answered the other two questions in about 4 minutes, you will have 6 marks in about 7 minutes. If you found yourself even remotely struggling with the Summary Question then you should have asked yourself whether you want to waste time over this.


Despite their fierce reputation. Vikings may not have always been the plunderers and pillagers popular culture imagines them to be. In fact, they got their start trading in northern European markets, researchers suggest.

Combs carved from animal antlers, as well as comb manufacturing waste and raw antler material has turned up at three archaeological sites in Denmark, including a medieval marketplace in the city of Ribe. A team of researchers from Denmark and the U.K. hoped to identify the species of animal to which the antlers once belonged by analyzing collagen proteins in the samples and comparing them across the animal kingdom, Laura Geggel reports for LiveScience. Somewhat surprisingly, molecular analysis of the artifacts revealed that some combs and other material had been carved from reindeer antlers. Given that reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) don’t live in Denmark, the researchers posit that it arrived on Viking ships from Norway. Antler craftsmanship, in the form of decorative combs, was part of Viking culture. Such combs served as symbols of good health, Geggel writes. The fact that the animals shed their antlers also made them easy to collect from the large herds that inhabited Norway.

Since the artifacts were found in marketplace areas at each site it’s more likely that the Norsemen came to trade rather than pillage. Most of the artifacts also date to the 780s, but some are as old as 725. That predates the beginning of Viking raids on Great Britain by about 70 years. (Traditionally, the so-called “Viking Age” began with these raids in 793 and ended with the Norman conquest of Great Britain in 1066.) Archaeologists had suspected that the Vikings had experience with long maritime voyages [that] might have preceded their raiding days. 

Beyond Norway, these combs would have been a popular industry in Scandinavia as well. It’s possible that the antler combs represent a larger trade network, where the Norsemen supplied raw material to craftsmen in Denmark and elsewhere.

Question 22

The primary purpose of the passage is 
A) to explain the presence of reindeer antler combs in Denmark.
B) to contradict the widely-accepted beginning date for the Viking Age in Britain, and propose an alternate one.
C) to challenge the popular perception of Vikings as raiders by using evidence that suggests their early trade relations with Europe.
D) to argue that besides being violent pillagers, Vikings were also skilled craftsmen and efficient traders.
Question 23
The evidence – “Most of the artifacts also date to the 780s, but some are as old as 725” – has been used in the passage to argue that:
A) the beginning date of the Viking Age should be changed from 793 to 725.
B) the Viking raids started as early as 725.
C) some of the antler artifacts found in Denmark and Great Britain could have come from Scandinavia.
D) the Vikings’ trade relations with Europe pre-dates the Viking raids.
Question 24
All of the following hold true for Vikings EXCEPT
A) Vikings brought reindeer from Norway to Denmark for trade purposes.
B) Before becoming the raiders of northern Europe, Vikings had trade relations with European nations.
C) Antler combs, regarded by the Vikings as a symbol of good health, were part of the Viking culture.

D) Vikings, once upon a time, had trade relations with Denmark and Scandinavia.


Once you read the first two paragraphs you will see there are no questions on both of them.

The first specific question you will encounter will be question 23 which is based on the third paragraph.

This question is like a CR question and the answer to this is option D. The presence of artifacts, 70 years before the raids, is used to highlight the argument that trade relations began before the raids.

We are now left with question 24 and question 22.

As discussed, always move from detail to summary questions and you should approach the last question.

Option A is not mentioned and hence is the answer since this is an EXCEPT question.  The passage says that Vikings might have brought raw material to make combs from Norway to Denmark. The question-maker cleverly slips in the reindeer instead of raw material.

The summary question again is best solved by elimination.

The passage is about the image of Vikings — they are not the fierce pillagers that they are considered to be.

Based on this you can eliminate options A and B since they do not mention or refer to the popular the perception, image or view of Vikings

Between C and D. Option D says — to argue that besides being violent pillagers. This means that the author supports or acknowledges the fact that Vikings were violent pillagers. The author nowhere states this. Hence, C.

Whenever you are caught between two options, always look for ways to reject.


Notes on the Paragraph to Questions approach

Over the years, I have got the same set of queries with respect to this approach and I am sure all of you will end up having the same set of issues when you try to execute the method. 

Doesn’t this method take longer?

You are not going to read all questions each and every time you finish a para or two by the end of the first question, by the time you do it twice you will remember most of the questions.

If anything you will save the time going back to the passage to answer specific questions and reading the paragraph all over again since you have completely forgotten Para 3 of a 6-Para passage by the time you read Question 5, which is based on the third paragraph!

So, no, it just feels longer in the beginning because you have not perfected it yet.

With this method, I find it tough to retain the overall thought flow of the passage 

Some test-takers have said that they find it difficult to retain the flow of the passage when they break off after every paragraph and go to the questions. They either really feel disoriented or they feel that they lose track of the overall flow.

This is absolutely expected in the beginning, it is purely a question of getting used to the method. Once you solve about 30 passages you will feel comfortable.

I feel that answering questions with respect to a paragraph makes your understanding of the paragraph stronger!

Also, if the Passage to Questions approach is working well for you and you are getting your desired accuracy on RCs, then there is no need for you to change! 

There are passages that have very few specific questions

Some readers have said that there are passages that have barely any specific questions. There can be a 3-question passage with no question from a particular paragraph and all questions being Summary Questions. But on average there will be at least 2 to 3 questions based on specific paragraphs. 

And even if you encounter such a passage it does not hurt you in any way since you know at the end of the first paragraph, when you read all the questions, that all of them are summary questions and there is no point going back to the question after every paragraph!


P.S: I do the VA-RC feedback of 3 to 4 SimCATs every year, the videos are a much better way to learn the actual process of solving the questions, especially the getting stuck between two options, so do watch the video feedback.

26 Comments

  1. Aditya says

    Hi Tony Sir,

    Thank you for this post and the previous one, I have a different story to tell ( I am sure this wouldn’t be anything new for you!). When you break down things like this in blogs, Masterclasses, SIMCAT Analysis, etc, I find it very easy and do the passage with very good accuracy. For example, in the last post, I could do the whole passage with one mistake and my thoughts were completely aligned with yours, if you mentioned C&D were close, I even felt the same thing that C&D were close while doing the question even before seeing your analysis.

    After reading your last post I was pretty pumped up and took SIMCAT-6( Followed Paragraph to question approach), Just like always I miserably failed, i dont know what goes wrong when the clock starts ticking for me sir, I don’t know , how do I hold my nerves.

    Sometimes, I feel atleast if I releaise that “I am dumb and I can’t do this anymore”, I would give up on my preparation but even that is not happening after the test I am always able to do better.

    As there is no other way to reach out to you, I am posting my problems here sir, I hope you don’t mind.

    Your virtual student -IMS

    Like

    • Hi Aditya,

      I had you until the second paragraph where you mentioned clearly how things work in a non-test situation.

      But the moment you came to things going wrong during the test, your eloquence deserted you. All you told me is nerves and nothing else.

      You need to precisely figure out what happens because of the nerves —

      1. You are unable to ever read with full comprehension since a layer of hurry, nerves, and the timer clouds your understanding, or
      2. You rush in your reading because of the timer or
      3. You do not frame shadow answers, you do not eliminate but end up selecting

      Irrespective of the above diagnosis(es) you need to do one thing first — set realistic expectations based on your SimCAT scores and not on your estimation of your ability.

      This can be a vicious cycle — based on your post-test or out of test performance you think your level is a score of 45 and not 15 so every time you go into the test thinking 45, have ambitious plans for attempts, do not have enough time to follow processes to the t, and eventually, end up with 15!

      The truth might be somewhere in the middle, yes, you are not worth 15 but maybe at this point, you are not worth 45 either.

      I want you to start with setting realistic targets — adding 10 marks to your average SimCAT VA-RC score so far — if your average score is 15 then 25 and so on.

      Attempt only as many questions as you need to score 25 and give enough time to read and follow processes (for RC and VA) thoroughly.

      I would suggest consciously choosing to solve only the two easiest passages (10-12 minutes each) and 15-20 minutes for the VA questions.

      Execute this successfully for three tests, and then move to three passages.

      Once you set yourself this target bring in the diagnosis of what actually happens during the test — it always boils down to process breakdown — so talk to yourself, visualize what you will do during the 40 minutes, before the test.

      I will do a detailed post on why your post-test performance might not be an accurate indicator of your actual.

      Hope this helps,

      All the best!

      Liked by 1 person

  2. sir, U r a wonderful writer and mentor……from the perspective of your analysis of the passages i can see that……..but sir what to do…if i am able to do only 2 passages and VA part in 40 minutes…..with just 70percentages accuracy…….Is it ok? or should I try to improve to 3passages with VA part……kIndly share with me on this point of view sir……..

    Like

    • Hi Jai Prakash,

      Like others who comment, you also do not mention the 8 VA questions and what happens with them — as far as I am concerned they offer scope for 24 marks, and solving them with solid technique can get you at least 15 marks.

      So, the first thing you need to do is guarantee 15 marks by mastering the three techniques for each of the three VA question types. I have done video solutions for SimCATs 1 and 4 and will be doing a Masterclass as well soon.

      With 15 marks from here and 18 marks from RC, you are guaranteed 33 marks in 40 minutes, which is quite respectable. Last year, the VA-RC cut-off was only 23, 33 would have been a windfall.

      If I make seem so simple why do not people do it? Because no one prepares for VA, they take it for granted, and everyone wants to do 4 passages.

      Very much like, I will not develop any skill against spin bowling since most teams have only one or two spinners, and I will try to get bat and ball to every fast bowler’s every delivery — you know what happens then!

      I can always get a labourer to lay the bricks, I need an architect to draw the right plan based on the site. Most students operate like labourers and want to perfect their bricklaying ability and lay as many bricks as they can. The ability to see this larger picture and not operate from fear and school-like attitude is what most test-takers lack.

      Hope this gives you an idea of what you need to do from now on.

      All the best!

      Like

      • jaiprakash05012000 says

        thnks sir….will improve on my VA as well with good techniques and will not go out in Duck in VA and will try my very best to go somewhat near to half century IN VARC…….

        Liked by 2 people

  3. Aditya says

    Yes sir, I know I wasn’t as clear as I should have been (Probably the effect of SIMCATs 😦 ) . Nevertheless, you got me right, and thank you once again.

    Liked by 1 person

  4. Farshid Daruwalla says

    Hi sir,

    I have been regularly visiting your blogs and have been practising accordingly. Yet when I give a 120 minute sim-cat I am unable to achieve the accuracy I wish to. The time is now not the constraint as I have come around that…. yet I am unable to score. I read the whole passage and then jump to the questions, when I try to stop somehow I keep reading ahead. In the current passages you have solved, I read the entire passage and then approached the questions(getting all of them right except 2).

    Like

    • Hi Farshid,
      As I wrote right at the very beginning of the post, the para to questions approach is not for everyone – it is for those who have trouble reading from start to end, trouble retaining information and thus ending up with with low accuracy. So, you continue with the passage o questions approach.

      What you need to know though is that answering all passages is counterproductive and may be impossible (for most) unless all of the passages are ridiculously easy.

      So, spend 25 minutes on three passages and the rest on VA, which no one seems to be bothered about, everyone thinks of it as a bonus.

      If after doing all of these you still have time left then attempt the last passage.

      Hope this helps,

      All the best!

      Like

  5. Himon Roy says

    Hello Sir
    I have started to follow this approach from the first post itself and I am hopeful that very soon the positive effects will be start reflecting on my SIMCAT mocks(My accuracy is very low in VARC till now) and it will be definitely make a difference in CAT-21.
    Sir I really expect similar kind of Post for VA section as well. Sometimes what happens with me this that in 10-12 mins time which try to solve VA in simcat I am not able to go through all the questions many times 3-4 VA which I am solving turns out to be Moderate level and easy question left out without attempting because of the time constrain. Sir at present I am able to solve only 2 Passages in the remaining 28 mins(Summary ,expect question takes lot more time). Now the thing is if I will let go these question in first go, I think I will not be able to comprehend the passage as well after sometime and that will make these question even harder. What to do in such cases?(In these 3 Passages you have said that not always get stuck on these type of question)
    Are we going to have master class in VARC and LRDI as well as we are having in Quants?
    Simcat-6 VA question:
    Five jumbled up sentences, related to a topic, are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a coherent paragraph. Identify the odd one out and key in the number of the sentence as your answer.

    1. Though she had no inkling at the time, it turned out to be part of a group called the coelacanths, hitherto believed to have died out with the dinosaurs.(About Coelacanths)
    2. On December 23rd 1938 Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer, a curator at the East London Museum, in South Africa, dropped by her local fish market.(Fish Market)
    3. A study just published in Current Biology indicates that besides having lasted more than 400 m years, coelacanths have similar lifespans to human beings.(Comparing Coelacanths lifespan to human)
    4. While there, she spotted the most beautiful fish she had ever seen – it was pale mauve, nearly two metres long, and had silvery markings.(Beautiful Fish in fish market)
    5. This find, called Latimeria chalumnae in Courtenay-Latimer’s honour, showed coelacanths are still very much alive.(About coelacanths)

    Approach to be followed is labelling for odd one out sentence(as suggested in previous Simcats video solution) but I would request you to go through the video solution provided for this question, approach provided is linking two sentences. Off course in Simcat I tried to solve it by labelling not able to solve it then went to the video solution to see what will be solution, it’s a different approach that makes me confused, please guide what to follow?
    Sir I have started yoga (15-20 mins) everyday after watching your video(Managing Stress and Anxiety during Preparation) and I can see the results on my focus, so also expecting more such type of video as well…

    Like

    • Hi Himon,

      I will be taking a Masterclass for VA, the feedback videos of SimCAT, and some strategy sessions for LR-DI.

      One can start with VA or RC since it is a matter of personal preference. The catch in your case is that you might not be able to answer all VA questions in time. Ideally, you have no more than 15 minutes for 8 VA questions, what you have to do is not solve them in sequence but solve the ones that you are very good at first. So if your order is Odd-one-out, PJ and Summary, then solve them in that order.

      Even here is does not mean that if you find a really tough PJ you spend 5 minutes solving that one question, you have to enter some answer and move ahead.

      Be it VA or RC the task is to answer the easy-medium questions. Your target should be to sidestep the three painful VA questions and get 15 marks from the remaining 5 in 15 minutes.

      The rest of the time you have to solve as many RCs as you can.

      As far as this question or any other Odd-one out goes, the first go-to method that I advocate is labelling since it is faster. If I am not able to reach the answer after the first round of labelling I do a second round of labelling, which goes into more detail.

      For this set of sentences, you will see that the best label that fits is MCL-fishmarket, discovery about coelacanths.

      Since in this set the sequence is so easily obvious, the teacher might have slipped back to linking but even then as I wrote above the label is the one that will get you there faster.

      Since I am not a YouTuber I will not be doing more and more of the same type of videos; finally it is the consistency and quantity of practice that is more important than the quantity of gyaan consumed; we live in a world where everyone is now addicted to consuming information and that in itself becomes a habit that is finally beneficial only to the guys creating the videos.

      Hope this helps,

      All the best!

      Like

      • Himon Roy says

        Thanks sir for replying…will solve Va questions using this approach

        Like

  6. Tanya says

    Hi Sir,
    I just wanted your view on this- I have given all proctored simcats till now and a couple of take-home simcats as well. however my performance in take home simcats is much much better than proctored ones.
    So is it because take-home simcats are a little easier than proctored or because i am a little stressed during proctored as there is a bit of performance pressure.
    Also sir, by when can we expect the perfomance benchmarks for the latest take home simcats?

    Like

    • Hi Tanya,

      Take-Home SimCATs are Proctored SimCATs only but from two years ago, and two years ago students would have found them tough when they were Proctored. We modify them to adjust for toughness if there was a change, and the CAT has surprisingly been consistent since 2015, barring say the increase in VA difficulty in the last year.

      Since the name is different people usually are more relaxed and do better.

      As far as performance data goes 100-110 marks is usually the benchmark for ~ 99 percentile, that is the broad benchmark that you can go with.

      All the best!

      Like

  7. abhishek haldar says

    Hi sir, my accuracy for RC is stuck at mostly around 50% I usually attempt 15-16 questions and even if I reduce the number of questions my accuracy remains similar, I feel this could be because I am able to boil down the options to last two after rejecting the rest two thereafter it kind of becomes a matter of 50% probability (I am not very sure though). please do advise how can I fix this.

    Also, I attend sets sequentially I do not know how to choose the easier ones (the ways we do in LRDI) is it based on the topic? Is It a better idea to find easier or familiar topics and give more time to it but then what if the reading part was easy but the questions are still difficult?

    Like

    • Hi Abhishek,

      The main reason why people get stuck between two options is that they do not execute the last two steps in the process to perfection — framing a shadow answer — what the option should say or what function the option should perform — and then eliminating options that do not fit the criteria.

      A lot of people do not consciously do the shadow answer part and even if they do they might not do it correctly because they do not precisely decode the question. The two options that remain are usually relevant to the context, which is what makes the trap option close, but only one of them answers the question.

      I demonstrated the entire technique for RC in detail in the RC-1 Masterclass, which is available in the Channel TAB of myIMS, and in the video solutions of SimCATs 1 and 4.

      One has to select passages and solve them starting with the easiest first. I have demonstrated this in SimCAT Strategy Videos which are a part of the Channel TAB of myIMS.

      Hope this helps,

      All the best!

      Like

  8. How can we assume for Q22 that vikings were ‘efficient’ traders. This way C would seem the correct option.
    D) to argue that besides being violent pillagers, Vikings were also skilled craftsmen and efficient traders.

    Liked by 1 person

  9. Stuti Jajodia says

    Hello Sir. I m facing a lot of problem in varc . i have been consistently giving all the proctored simcats but i am unable to clear my cut off in varc due to which i am unable to improve my overall percentile and my score. I am doing fairly good in quants and dilr with a good accuracy but i am unable to improve my overall scores due to my performance in varc.

    Like

    • Hi Stuti,

      To get good scores on VA-Rc you need three things:

      1. Technique — Unless you have a solid technique on each of the VA question types and follow the process of RC, you are not going to go anywhere with your scores. So, ask yourself if you really follow the 5-Pauses Method, which I described in detail in RC-1, and the XYZ Method, the Labelling Method and the Sort-Link-Sequence Method? Most students watch the video solutions but finally solve it their own way or try the methods in the video solutions only on tough questions, unfortunately it does work that way.

      2. Question Selection and time management — if you are used to solving the section from start to finish and seeing now many marks you end up with then it will be an issue. For starters set your sights on selecting 2 out of 4 Rcs and getting 15 marks from VA; solve the remaining passages only if you have time.

      3. Speed — You are doing everything correctly but don’t have enough speed.

      The best thing to do will be to practice just VA-RC for a week to get your technique right, and for the next week take section tests to execute the test-takings right. Unless you do something like this your scores will not see a dramatic jump. So keep everything else aside for two weeks and focus on VA-RC, and if the other sections are really our strengths then nothing will happen.

      Hope this helps,

      All the best!

      Like

  10. My Past,an unforgettable present says

    Sir, your tricks and tips are quite helping me to solve RCs more efficiently as this section was giving me nightmares since the very beginning of my preparation. Although, I need a lot of practice to still crack the Da Vinci Code of RCs, I am keeping my hopes high. There is an official telegram group of IMS, it would be really helpful if IMS can send one RC daily like it does on YouTube for quant. It’s a need of the hour more than a suggestion. Thankyou.

    Like

    • Hi,

      Glad you find the posts useful.

      We will be putting up a few RCs and VA questions as well on the best of CAT series. An RC a day will not be possible as doing CAT RC solutions takes a lot of time and is not planned for this season.

      All the best!

      Like

  11. Mohit says

    Hi sir,

    Have you written any blog for selection of RCs ?

    Bcoz these 4 blogs have been really helpful, a big thank you for this.

    Like

    • Hi Mohit,

      I have covered that in the Last Mile to CAT VA-RC video, which is available to all IMS students. I have not done a post on this blog.

      Hope this helps,

      All the best!

      Like

  12. lakshay gupta says

    sir , i am going wrong on framing the main idea and shadow answer many times and sometimes it also difficult for me to understand particular paragraph of a passage . sir plz help me

    Like

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